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Diesel Bio-Based Blendstock

Detailed information about diesel bio-based blendstocks is presented below.

Emissions estimates use the Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model (Wang et al., 2022). The underlying source for a value in the table can be seen by placing your mouse cursor over that value. The data sources are also cited—with hyperlinked linked references—in the Key Assumptions section below.   


Key Assumptions

The data and estimates presented here are based on the following key assumptions:

  • Fuel Price: The fuel price (e.g., Lowest Cost, Lowest Emissions) is associated with a single year. Because we do not provide a time-series trajectory, here we show fuel price at a frozen level for all years so we can offer a range of fuel price values. In the levelized cost of driving and emissions charts, this approach clearly distinguishes effects of fuels from those of vehicle technologies, because fuels remain constant while vehicle technologies change over time.
  • Fuel Price References: The fuel price for the hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (HEFA) pathway is based on Tao, Milbrandt et al. (Tao et al., 2017). For the Fischer Tropsch (FT) pathway, the fuel price is based on Tan et al.  (Tan et al., 2021)
  • Biodiesel Fuel Price: The fuel price for biodiesel is based on the Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report (DOE, 2020).
  • Emissions Estimates: The emissions are based on GREET 2022 (Wang et al., 2022)(Xie et al., 2011), and (Xu et al., 2022).

The data downloads include additional details of assumptions and calculations for each metric.

To see additional information, place your mouse cursor over a value in the table. 


For detailed definitions, see:





Fuel price

Renewable diesel


Well-to-tank emissions

Well-to-wheels emissions


The following references are specific to this page; for all references in this ATB, see References.

Wang, Michael, Amgad Elgowainy, Uisung Lee, Kwang Hoon Baek, Adarsh Bafana, Pahola Thathiana Benavides, Andrew Burnham, et al. “Summary of Expansions and Updates in GREET® 2022.” Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States), October 1, 2022.

Tao, Ling, Anelia Milbrandt, Yanan Zhang, and Wei-Cheng Wang. “Techno-Economic and Resource Analysis of Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet Fuel.” Biotechnology for Biofuels 10, no. 1 (November 9, 2017): 261.

Tan, Eric C. D., Troy R. Hawkins, Uisung Lee, Ling Tao, Pimphan A. Meyer, Michael Wang, and Tom Thompson. “Biofuel Options for Marine Applications: Technoeconomic and Life-Cycle Analyses.” Environmental Science & Technology 55, no. 11 (June 1, 2021): 7561–70.

DOE. “Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2020,” 2020.

Xie, Xiaomin, Michael Wang, and Jeongwoo Han. “Assessment of Fuel-Cycle Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Fischer−Tropsch Diesel from Coal and Cellulosic Biomass.” Environmental Science & Technology 45, no. 7 (April 1, 2011): 3047–53.

Xu, Hui, Longwen Ou, Yuan Li, Troy R. Hawkins, and Michael Wang. “Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Biodiesel and Renewable Diesel Production in the United States.” Environmental Science & Technology 56, no. 12 (June 21, 2022): 7512–21.

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