Skip to main content
You are viewing an older version of the ATB. The most recent version of this page is for 2022.


ASTM D7566-19b. “Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuel Containing Synthesized Hydrocarbons.” West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, 2019.

Adams, Jesse, Cassidy Houchins, and Rajesh Ahluwalia. “Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System - Cost and Performance Status.” DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record, November 25, 2019.

Argonne National Laboratory. GREET Model: The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model. Argonne, IL (United States): Argonne National Laboratory, 2018.

Argonne National Laboratory. “Hydrogen Delivery Scenario Analysis Model (HDSAM),” 2019.

Argonne National Laboratory. “BatPaC: Battery Manufacturing Cost Estimation,” 2019.

Argonne National Laboratory. “Autonomie,” 2019.

Baronas, Jean, and Gerhard Achtelik. “Joint Agency Staff Report on Assembly Bill 8: 2019 Annual Assessment of Time and Cost Needed to Attain 100 Hydrogen Refueling Stations in California.” California Energy Commission and California Air Resources Board, December 2019.

Bento, Antonio, Kevin Roth, and Yiou Zuo. “Vehicle Lifetime Trends and Scrappage Behavior in the U.S. Used Car Market.” The Energy Journal 39, no. 1 (2018).

BloombergNEF. “Battery Pack Prices Fall As Market Ramps Up With Market Average At $156/KWh In 2019.” BloombergNEF (blog), December 3, 2019.

Borlaug, Brennan, Shawn Salisbury, Mindy Gerdes, and Matteo Muratori. “Levelized Cost of Charging Electric Vehicles in the United States.” Joule 4, no. 7 (July 15, 2020): 1470–85.

Boyd, Steven. “Batteries and Electrification R&D Overview.” Presented at the Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review, June 18, 2018.

Browne, David, Margaret O’Mahony, and Brian Caulfield. “How Should Barriers to Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Be Classified and Potential Policies to Promote Innovative Technologies Be Evaluated?” Journal of Cleaner Production 35 (November 1, 2012): 140–51.

Burke, Andrew, and Lin Zhu. “The Economics of the Transition to Fuel Cell Vehicles with Natural Gas, Hybrid-Electric Vehicles as the Bridge.” Research in Transportation Economics, Sustainable Transportation, 52 (October 1, 2015): 65–71.

Cai, Hao, Thathiana Benavides, Uisung Lee, Michael Wang, Eric Tan, Ryan Davis, Abhijit Dutta, et al. “Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Renewable Hydrocarbon Fuels via Indirect Liquefaction, Ex Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrothermal Liquefaction, Combined Algal Processing, and Biochemical Conversion: Update of the 2018 State-of-Technology Cases and Design Cases.” Argonne, IL (United States): Argonne National Laboratory, December 1, 2018.

California Air Resources Board. “LCFS Pathway Certified Carbon Intensities.” California Air Resources Board, April 27, 2020.

California Air Resources Board. “Low Carbon Fuel Standard Program,” 2019.

California Energy Commission. “2018 Total System Electric Generation.” California Energy Commission, June 24, 2019.

Cole, Wesley, Nathaniel Gates, Trieu Mai, Daniel Greer, and Paritosh Das. “2019 Standard Scenarios Report: A U.S. Electricity Sector Outlook.” National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States), December 2019.

DOE. “Alternative Fuels Data Center,” 2019.

DOE. “Clean Cities Fact Sheet: Biodiesel Blends.” U.S. Department of Energy, April 2008.

DOE. “Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels.” Alternative Fuels Data Center, 2020.

DOE. “Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2018.” Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, 2018.

DOE. “H2A: Hydrogen Analysis Production Case Studies,” 2018.

Davis, Stacy C, and Robert G Boundy. Transportation Energy Data Book. 37.1., 2019.

Davis, Ryan E., Nicholas J. Grundl, Ling Tao, Mary J. Biddy, Eric C. Tan, Gregg T. (ORCID:000000023480212X) Beckham, David Humbird, David N. Thompson, and Mohammad S. Roni. “Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels and Coproducts: 2018 Biochemical Design Case Update; Biochemical Deconstruction and Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Products via Integrated Biorefinery Pathways.” Golden, CO (United States): National Renewable Energy Laboratory, November 19, 2018.

Dunn, Jennifer, Michael Johnson, Zhichao Wang, Michael Wang, Kara Cafferty, Jake Jacobson, Erin Searcy, et al. “Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Three Biofuel Pathways: Biochemical Conversion of Corn Stover to Ethanol Indirect Gasification of Southern Pine to Ethanol Pyrolysis of Hybrid Poplar to Hydrocarbon Fuels.” Argonne, IL (United States): Argonne National Laboratory, November 2013.

Dutta, A., M. Talmadge, J. Hensley, M. Worley, D. Dudgeon, D. Barton, P. Groendijk, et al. “Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis.” Golden, CO (United States): National Renewable Energy Laboratory, May 1, 2011.

Dutta, Abhijit, Maarit K. Iisa, Calvin Mukarakate, Michael B. Griffin, Eric C. D. Tan, Joshua A. Schaidle, David Humbird, et al. “Ex Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: 2018 State of Technology and Future Research.” Golden, CO (United States): National Renewable Energy Laboratory, November 2, 2018.

EIA. “U.S. Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices,” July 13, 2020.

EIA. “Annual Energy Outlook 2020.” Washington, D.C.: U.S. Energy Information Administration, January 29, 2020.

EIA. “Annual Energy Outlook 2019.” Washington, D.C.: U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2019.

EIA. “Glossary,” 2019.

EIA. “Annual State-Level Generation and Fuel Consumption Data,” 2019.

EIA. “Electricity Data Browser: Average Retail Price of Electricity,” 2019.,1&geo=vvvvvvvvvvvvo&endsec=vg&freq=A&start=2001&end=2017&ctype=linechart&ltype=pin&rtype=s&pin=&rse=0&maptype=0.

EIA. “Annual Energy Outlook 2017.” Washington, D.C.: U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2017.

EIA. “Petroleum and Other Liquids: Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes,” 2019.

EIA. “Transportation Sector Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System: Model Documentation.” Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, November 2016.

EIA. “Annual Energy Outlook 2016.” Washington, D.C.: U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2016.

EIA. “Annual Energy Outlook 2018.” Washington, D.C.: U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2018.

EIA. “U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA): Sector,” 2018.

EPA. “Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2): Final Rule.” Policies and Guidance. US EPA, July 15, 2015.

EPA. “Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Changes to Renewable Fuel Standard Program; Final Rule,” March 26, 2010.

EPA. “Reformulated Gasoline.” Policies and Guidance, August 7, 2015.

EPA. “Proposed Determination on the Appropriateness of the Model Year 2022-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards under the Midterm Evaluation.” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, November 30, 2016.

Elgowainy, Amgad, Jeongwoo Han, Jacob Ward, Fred Joseck, David Gohlke, Alicia Lindauer, Todd Ramsden, et al. “Cradle-to-Grave Lifecycle Analysis of U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle-Fuel Pathways: A Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economic Assessment of Current (2015) and Future (2025–2030) Technologies,” September 1, 2016.

FRED. “Gross Domestic Product: Implicit Price Deflator.” FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, 2019.

Han, Jeongwoo, Ling Tao, and Michael Wang. “Well-to-Wake Analysis of Ethanol-to-Jet and Sugar-to-Jet Pathways.” Biotechnology for Biofuels 10, no. 1 (January 24, 2017): 21.

Honda. “2020 Honda Clarity Fuel Cell,” 2020.

Hyundai. “Hyundai Nexo Fuel Cell SUV,” 2020.

IPCC. “Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.” Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC, 2014.

Islam, Ehsan Sabri, Ayman Moawad, Nandoo Kim, and Aymeric Rousseau. “Energy Consumption and Cost Reduction of Future Light-Duty Vehicles through Advanced Vehicle Technologies: A Modeling Simulation Study Through 2050.” Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), June 2020.

James, Brian D, Jennie M Huya-Kouadio, Cassidy Houchins, Daniel A DeSantis, and Strategic Analysis. “Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2018 Update,” 2018, 355.

Kah, Marianne. “Electric Vehicle Penetration and Its Impact on Global Oil Demand: A Survey of 2019 Forecast Trends.” Columbia School of International and Public Affairs Center on Global Energy Policy, December 2019.

Kaluza, Sebastian, David Almeida, and Paige Mullen. “BMW i ChargeForward: PG&E’s Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Pilot.” A cooperation between BMW Group and Pacific Gas and Electricty Company, 2016.

Kass, Mike, Zia Abdullah, Mary Biddy, Corinne Drennan, Troy Hawkins, Susanne Jones, Johnathan Holladay, et al. “Understanding the Opportunities of Biofuels for Marine Shipping.” Oak Ridge, TN (United States): Oak Ridge National Laboratory, December 2018.

Kittner, Noah, Felix Lill, and Daniel M. Kammen. “Energy Storage Deployment and Innovation for the Clean Energy Transition.” Nature Energy 2, no. 9 (September 2017): 17125.

Lee, Dong-Yeon, and Amgad Elgowainy. “By-Product Hydrogen from Steam Cracking of Natural Gas Liquids (NGLs): Potential for Large-Scale Hydrogen Fuel Production, Life-Cycle Air Emissions Reduction, and Economic Benefit.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 43, no. 43 (October 25, 2018): 20143–60.

Lutsey, Nic, and Michael Nicholas. “Update on Electric Vehicle Costs in the United States through 2030.” WORKING PAPER 2019-06. The International Council on Clean Transportation, April 2, 2019.

Lutsey, Nic, Dan Meszler, Aaron Isenstadt, John German, and Josh Miller. “Efficiency Technology and Cost Assessment for U.S. 2025–2030 Light-Duty Vehicles.” Washington, D.C.: International Council on Clean Transportation, 2017.

Moawad, Ayman, Namdoo Kim, Neeraj Shidore, and Aymeric Rousseau. “Assessment of Vehicle Sizing, Energy Consumption, and Cost Through Large-Scale Simulation of Advanced Vehicle-Technologies.” Argonne National Laboratory, March 2016.

NHTSA. “Vehicle Survivability and Travel Mileage Schedules.” National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, January 2006.

NRC. “Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels.” National Research Council, March 18, 2013.

NRC. “Cost, Effectiveness, and Deployment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles.” National Research Council, June 18, 2015.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory. “National Household Travel Survey,” February 2019.

Ogden, Joan, Lew Fulton, and Dan Sperling. “Making the Transition to Light-Duty Electric-Drive Vehicles in the U.S.: Costs in Perspective to 2035.” UC Davis, December 2016.

Peterson, David, James Vickers, and Dan DeSantis. “Hydrogen Production Cost From PEM Electrolysis - 2019.” DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record. Department of Energy, February 3, 2020.

Rustagi, Neha, Amgad Elgowainy, and James Vickers. “Current Status of Hydrogen Delivery and Dispensing Costs and Pathways to Future Cost Reductions.” DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record. U.S. Department of Energy, December 2018.

Soulopoulos, Nikolas. “When Will Electric Vehicles Be Cheaper than Conventional Vehicles?” Bloomberg New Energy Finance, April 12, 2017.

Stephens, Thomas S., Rebecca S. Levinson, Aaron Brooker, Changzheng Liu, Zhenhong Lin, Alicia Birky, and Eleftheria Kontou. “Comparison of Vehicle Choice Models.” Argonne, IL (United States): Argonne National Laboratory, October 31, 2017.

Tan, Eric C D, and Ling Tao. “Economic Analysis of Renewable Fuels for Marine Propulsion.” Renewable Energy, 2019, 28.

Tao, Ling, Jennifer N. Markham, Zia Haq, and Mary J. Biddy. “Techno-Economic Analysis for Upgrading the Biomass-Derived Ethanol-to-Jet Blendstocks.” Green Chemistry 19, no. 4 (2017): 1082–1101.

US EPA. “Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Results.” Data and Tools. US EPA, January 11, 2016.

Zhang, Yanan, Asad H. Sahir, Eric C. D. Tan, Michael S. Talmadge, Ryan Davis, Mary J. Biddy, and Ling Tao. “Economic and Environmental Potentials for Natural Gas to Enhance Biomass-to-Liquid Fuels Technologies.” Green Chemistry 20, no. 23 (2018): 5358–73.

Issue Type
Problem Text