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Marine Fuels

Explore the fuel price and emissions intensity of marine fuel. This page does not include diesel-electric hybridization or other marine power sources. Well-to-wake emissions are not included because of the wide variety of vessels that may be using these fuels.

Key Assumptions

The data and estimates presented here are based on the following key assumptions:

  • Heavy Fuel Oil Prices: The prices for heavy fuel oil are based on the U.S. Energy Information Administration's Monthly Energy Review (EIA, 2023).
  • FT and HEFA Pathways: For FT and HEFA pathways, the estimates for marine biofuel prices and process performance used in GREET for emissions intensities are based on Tan et al. (Tan et al., 2021) for FT and HEFA. Well-to-wake emissions estimates are not shown due to the wide range of potential vessel fuel economies.
  • HTL Pathway: For the HTL pathway, the price is based on (Snowden-Swan et al., 2020).
  • Conventional Heavy Fuel Oil: The conventional heavy fuel oil price is from (EIA, 2023) (data from 2020).
  • Conventional Marine Diesel: Conventional marine diesel oil is a combination of heavy fuel oil and marine gas oil. Conventional heavy fuel oil data are shown; conventional marine gas oil data were not found.

To see additional information, place your mouse cursor over a value in the table. 


For detailed definitions, see:


Conventional marine diesel

Fuel price

Renewable diesel



The following references are specific to this page; for all references in this ATB, see References.

EIA. “Monthly Energy Review, Table 9.5,” 2023.

Tan, Eric C. D., Troy R. Hawkins, Uisung Lee, Ling Tao, Pimphan A. Meyer, Michael Wang, and Tom Thompson. “Biofuel Options for Marine Applications: Technoeconomic and Life-Cycle Analyses.” Environmental Science & Technology 55, no. 11 (June 1, 2021): 7561–70.

Snowden-Swan, Lesley, Justin Billing, Michael Thorson, Andy Schmidt, Miki Santosa, Susanne Jones, and Richard Hallen. “Wet Waste Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Biocrude Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels: 2019 State of Technology.” Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, April 2020.

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