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Aviation Fuels

Explore the fuel price and emissions intensity of aviation fuel.

Emissions estimates use the Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model (Wang et al., 2022). The underlying source for a value in the table can be seen by placing your mouse cursor over that value. The data sources are also cited—with hyperlinked linked references—in the Key Assumptions section below.   

Key Assumptions

The data and estimates presented here are based on the following key assumptions:

  • Conventional Jet Fuel Price Estimates: The conventional jet fuel price is estimated from the transportation jet fuel price from EIA's Annual Energy Outlook (EIA, 2021). Prices are converted to dollars per gasoline gallon equivalent using the Lower Heating Values from the GREET model (Wang et al., 2021), assuming sustainable aviation fuel pathways have the same lower heating value as conventional jet fuel. The Transportation ATB does not provide plant metrics for conventional jet fuel because the price is based on current market values and not on modeled costs with specific plant design assumptions.
  • Price Estimate References: The price estimate for ethanol-to-jet (ETJ) fuel is based on Tao et al. (Tao et al., 2014) and Tao, Markham et al. (Tao et al., 2017a). For the hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (HEFA) pathway, it is based on analysis from Tao, Milbrandt et al. (Tao et al., 2017b). For the Fischer Tropsch (FT) pathway, it is based on analysis from Tan et al. (Tan et al., 2017)
  • Current Pathways: HEFA, ETJ, and FT pathways to sustainable aviation fuels are approved by ASTM for blending up to 50% of the final product. The pathways for future fuels are not the same as current pathways. 
  • Conventional Jet Fuel Estimates: Emissions estimates for conventional jet fuel are from the GREET model (Wang et al., 2022)  and use the petroleum ultra-low-sulfur jet pathways. The well-to-wake estimate assumes a single-aisle passenger aircraft (e.g., Boeing 737).
  • Emissions Estimate References: The emissions for the ETJ pathway are based on (Han et al., 2017). For the HEFA pathway they are based on (Xu et al., 2022) and for the FT pathway they are based on (Han et al., 2013).
  • Biogenic Carbon: The biogenic carbon in a biofuel such as the sustainable aviation fuel pathway is considered carbon-neutral in the GREET model, as the biogenic carbon is assumed to be sourced from the atmosphere during biomass growth. Per GREET model convention, the biogenic carbon credit is allocated to the well-to-tank phase of the biofuel life cycle, which often results in a negative well-to-tank CO2e emissions value after taking into account greenhouse gas emissions associated with all upstream activities (e.g., farming, land use change, feedstock transportation, and biomass conversion to biofuel).

The data downloads include additional details of assumptions and calculations for each metric.

To see additional information, place your mouse cursor over a value in the table. 


For detailed definitions, see:





Conventional jet fuel

Fuel price


Sustainable Aviation Fuel

Well-to-tank emissions

Well-to-wake emissions


The following references are specific to this page; for all references in this ATB, see References.

Wang, Michael, Amgad Elgowainy, Uisung Lee, Kwang Hoon Baek, Adarsh Bafana, Pahola Thathiana Benavides, Andrew Burnham, et al. “Summary of Expansions and Updates in GREET® 2022.” Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States), October 1, 2022.

EIA. “Annual Energy Outlook 2021.” Washington, D.C.: U.S. Energy Information Administration, February 2021.

Wang, Michael, Amgad Elgowainy, Uisung Lee, Adarsh Bafana, Sudhanya Banerjee, Pahola T. Benavides, Pallavi Bobba, et al. Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Technologies Model ® (2021 Excel). USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), 2021.

Tao, L., D. Schell, R. Davis, E. Tan, R. Elander, and A. Bratis. “NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol Fermentation via Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover,” April 1, 2014.

Tao, Ling, Jennifer N. Markham, Zia Haq, and Mary J. Biddy. “Techno-Economic Analysis for Upgrading the Biomass-Derived Ethanol-to-Jet Blendstocks.” Green Chemistry 19, no. 4 (2017): 1082𠄺1101.

Tao, Ling, Anelia Milbrandt, Yanan Zhang, and Wei-Cheng Wang. “Techno-Economic and Resource Analysis of Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet Fuel.” Biotechnology for Biofuels 10, no. 1 (November 9, 2017b): 261.

Tan, Eric C. D., Lesley J. Snowden-Swan, Michael Talmadge, Abhijit Dutta, Susanne Jones, Karthikeyan K. Ramasamy, Michel Gray, et al. “Comparative Techno-Economic Analysis and Process Design for Indirect Liquefaction Pathways to Distillate-Range Fuels via Biomass-Derived Oxygenated Intermediates Upgrading.” Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining 11, no. 1 (2017): 41–66.

Han, Jeongwoo, Ling Tao, and Michael Wang. “Well-to-Wake Analysis of Ethanol-to-Jet and Sugar-to-Jet Pathways.” Biotechnology for Biofuels 10, no. 1 (January 24, 2017): 21.

Xu, Hui, Longwen Ou, Yuan Li, Troy R. Hawkins, and Michael Wang. “Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Biodiesel and Renewable Diesel Production in the United States.” Environmental Science & Technology 56, no. 12 (June 21, 2022): 7512–21.

Han, Jeongwoo, Amgad Elgowainy, Hao Cai, and Michael Q. Wang. “Life-Cycle Analysis of Bio-Based Aviation Fuels.” Bioresource Technology 150 (December 1, 2013): 447–56.

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