Jet Fuel

Explore the fuel price and emissions intensity of jet fuel.

Key Assumptions

The data and estimates presented here are based on the following key assumptions:

  • The conventional jet fuel price is estimated from the 2018 transportation jet fuel price from Annual Energy Outlook 2019 (EIA 2019a). Prices are converted from dollars per gallon to dollars per gasoline gallon equivalent using the lower heating values of gasoline (112,194 Btu/gal) and petroleum ultra-low-sulfur jet (123,041 Btu/gal) from the GREET model (Argonne National Laboratory 2018). The Transportation ATB does not provide plant metrics for conventional jet fuel because the price is based on current market values and not on modeled costs with specific plant design assumptions.
  • Fuel production estimates for alternative jet fuel are based on analysis from Tao et al. (2017) and Zhang et al. (2018). These references describe pathways to alternative jet fuels that are approved for blending up to 50% of the final product (ASTM D7566-19b 2019). Emissions estimates are based on the range pathways from Han et al. (2017), which assumesd corn and corn stover feedstock. Note that Han et al. (2017) only provide emissions estimates for CO2e emissions, so other air emission estimates are not provided here.
  • Emissions estimates for conventional jet fuel are from GREET 2018, using the petroleum ultra-low-sulfur jet pathways. The well-to-wake estimate assumes a single-aisle passenger aircraft (e.g., Boeing 737).
  • The biogenic carbon in a biofuel such as the alternative jet fuel pathway is considered carbon-neutral in the GREET model, as the biogenic carbon is assumed to be sourced from the atmosphere during biomass growth. Per GREET model convention, the biogenic carbon credit is allocated to the well-to-tank phase of the biofuel life cycle, which often results in a negative well-to-tank CO2e emissions value after taking into account greenhouse gas emissions associated with all upstream activities (e.g., farming, land use change, feedstock transportation, and biomass conversion to biofuel).
  • The data downloads include additional detail on assumptions and calculations for each metric.


The following references are specific to this page; for all references in this ATB, see References.

Argonne National Laboratory (2018). GREET Model: The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation Model. Argonne National Laboratory.

ASTM D7566-19b (2019). Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuel Containing Synthesized Hydrocarbons. ASTM International.

EIA (2019). Annual Energy Outlook 2019. U.S. Energy Information Administration.

Han, Jeongwoo, Tao, Ling, & Wang, Michael. (2017). Well-to-Wake Analysis of Ethanol-to-Jet and Sugar-to-Jet Pathways. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 10(1), 21.

Tao, Ling, Markham, Jennifer N., Haq, Zia, & Biddy, Mary J. (2017). Techno-Economic Analysis for Upgrading the Biomass-Derived Ethanol-to-Jet Blendstocks. Green Chemistry, 19(4), 1082-1101.

Zhang, Yanan, H. Sahir, Asad, D. Tan, Eric C., S. Talmadge, Michael, Davis, Ryan, J. Biddy, Mary, & Tao, Ling. (2018). Economic and Environmental Potentials for Natural Gas to Enhance Biomass-to-Liquid Fuels Technologies. Green Chemistry, 20(23), 5358-5373.

Developed with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.